Saturday 17 October, 10.00 until 11.30, Cinema 1, Barbican Keynote Controversies
Liberalism emerged as the first ideology of modernity, forged during the Enlightenment in opposition to the hierarchy and reaction of the established order. More than two and a half centuries later, arguably liberalism itself is the established order, with many of the core values associated with liberalism now institutionalised throughout the Western world. Ideals such as tolerance, freedom of speech, liberty, individual autonomy, free elections, the rule of law, freedom of contract and the market have become accepted at least in principle across the political spectrum. This apparent triumph of the values of liberalism stands in sharp contrast with the disintegration of the other ideologies that emerged subsequently, especially in the nineteenth and twentieth century, from nationalism to various forms of socialism. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, liberalism appeared as the last ideology left standing. Francis Fukuyama famously heralded the triumph of liberal democracy as synonymous with the End of History.
Nevertheless, liberalism today appears more than a little disoriented and confused. In Europe, self-avowed ‘liberal’ parties are in disarray and may even face extinction. In the United States, many individuals who identify themselves as liberals self-consciously distance themselves from the classical liberal traditions of the Enlightenment. They often prefer to define their liberalism in opposition to conservative values, even at the cost of abandoning the toleration that was once the hallmark of liberalism.
Classical liberalism has very few friends on either side of the Atlantic. One symptom of this is society’s estrangement from the idea of liberty, which is often perceived as the hobby-horse of backward-looking right-wingers. The ideal of free speech is frequently trumped by the claim that it must be regulated in order to protect the powerless. Individual autonomy is invariably labelled as a myth. Even the liberal principle of tolerance has been criticised for being too judgmental and insufficiently accepting of those who are ‘merely’ tolerated.
Since there is little agreement on what liberalism means today, it is worth asking whether the legacy of liberalism is at all relevant to the public life of the twenty-first century? If it is, which components of this legacy are worth retaining, and why?
Labour peer; author, 5 Days in May: The Coalition and Beyond
London bureau chief, New York Times
Dr Katrina Forrester
lecturer in history of political thought, Queen Mary University of London
Professor Frank Furedi
sociologist and social commentator; author, Power of Reading: from Socrates to Twitter, Politics of Fear, On Tolerance and Authority: a sociological history
director, Institute of Ideas; panellist, BBC Radio 4's Moral Maze
Are Western values, essentially Judeo-Christian ones, truly universal? The history of the last decade is a bracing antidote to such easy thinking.Steven Erlanger, New York Times, 12 September 2015
One might think that a return to earlier liberal thinking in this day and age is merely an intellectual indulgence, but that is partly because we are often poor readers of our precursors.Mark Philp, OUP Blog, 25 July 2015
In Edmund Fawcett’s new history, liberalism begins with capitalism and revolution.Katrina Forrester, Nation, 23 December 2014
Frank Furedi talks to Brendan O’Neill about his new book On Tolerance and why he wants to halt and reverse the warping of the liberal outlook.Frank Furedi, spiked, 30 September 2011
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